India and Indian National Movement
As far as we consider the History of India and Indian National movement have been through a series of struggles for Freedom, including Political, Socio-Culture, and Economic factors. As we see the past of India, it contains a vast number of incidents which were important at that time and are considered as one of the essential parts in Indian history and especially for Exams like UPSC.
Indian National Congress (INC)
With the increasing Political influences at that time, the INC was founded in the premises of Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit School on 28 December 1885, in Bombay
Real Aim of Congress was to train the Indian youth in political agitation and to create public opinion in the country. For this, they use the method of the annual session, where they discuss the problem and pass the resolution. It came out to be one of the essential parts of freedom of India and in the history of India and Indian National Movements.
Other Political Movements
- Muslim league was founded in 1906 by Agah Khan III and Moshin Mulk.
- Lala Hardayal started Gadhar Movement in 1913 and founded the Gadhar party on 1st November 1913. Its headquarter was set up in San Francisco and began the publication.
- Komgata Maru Incident took place on Sept. 1914, and a committee was set up named as “Shore Committee” to fight the legal battle of passengers.
After the start of the First World War in 1914.
Some of the most essential movements in History of India and Indian National Movement.
- Tilak in April 1916 started Home Rule Movement, and it’s headquarter was at Poona and demanded Swaraj.
- In 1916 Lucknow Session of Congress was presided by Ambika Charan Majumdar where both Extremist and Moderate leaders were united.
- Annie Besant on September 1916, started Home Rule movement, and it’s headquarter was at Adiyar near Madras.
- Government of India Act 1919 or the Montagu- Chelmsford Reforms Act was passed to establish a responsible Government in India.
- On 9th January 1915, Gandhi Ji returns to India from South Africa at the age of 46.
- Champaran Satyagraha – 1917
- Kheda Satyagraha – 1917
- In 1916, Gandhi Ji founded Sabarmati Ashram at Ahmadabad (Gujarat) to preach the idea of truth and non-violence.
- Ahmadabad Mill Strike – 1918
- Rowlatt Act Satyagraha February 1919
- Gandhi Ji founded the Satyagraha Sabha on February 1919. This was the first movement of Gandhi Ji. In this movement, student, labor, middle class, and capitalist participated, and congress as an organization was nowhere.
- Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on 13 April 1919. People were gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar. It was to protest against the arrest of Saifuddin Kitchlew and Satyapal on 13 April 1919.
- In October 1920, All India Trade Union Congress was founded in Bombay by N. M Joshi, Ray Chaudhary and presided over by Lala Lajpat Ray.
- On 1st August 1920, Khilafat Committee launched a Non-Cooperation movement on triple issues- Punjab wrongs, Khilafat issue and Demand for Swaraj.
- Akali Movement was started in 1920.
- In 1925, the SGPC (Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandak Committee) was founded.
- CR Das and Motilal Nehru formed congress Khilafat Swaraj Party.
- Also famous for the second split in the congress.
- In 1927, Workers & Peasant Party (WPP) was formed at Bombay by S.S Mirajkar, K. N Juglekar, and S.V Ghate.
- In 1924, H.R.A (Hindustan Republican Association) was formed at Kanpur. Its members were CS Azad, Sachin Sanyal, and Ramprasad Bismil.
- In 1929, HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republic Association) was formed at Firozeshah Kotla Delhi. Bhagat Singh joined HSRA.
- On 9 Aug 1925 Kakori Train Dacoit, in this conspiracy case Ram Prasad Bismil, Rajendra Lahiri, Roshan Lal, and Asafaqullah khan were hanged to death.
- On 23rd March 1931 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged to death in Lahore Conspiracy Case.
- On 8 November 1927 Simon Commission was appointed by the British Conservative government under Stanley Baldwin. To inquire in the working system of Government in the country after the reform act of 1919.
- Nehru Report- 1928 for dominion status, universal adult franchise, etc.
- Jinnah’s 14 point program on 31st March 1929.
- In 1929 Lahore Session of INC presided by Jawaharlal Nehru where the congress passed the resolution of Purna Swaraj and decided to launch a Civil Disobedience movement under the leadership of Gandhi Ji.
- Civil Disobedience Movement was started with the Dandi March. From 12 March to 6 April 1930 Gandhi Ji along with his 78 followers, marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and broke the salt law by making salt on 6th April 1930.
- On 5th March 1931, Gandhi Irwin Pact was signed.
- On 12 November 1930 First Round Table Conference was held.
- On 23rd March 1931 Trial of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.
- On 29 March 1931 Karachi Session of INC, presided over by Vallabh Bhai Patel. In this session, the first time, a resolution of Fundamental Rights and Economic policy were passed.
- On 16th August 1932 Communal or Ramsay Macdonald Award was announced.
- On 7th September 1931, the Second Round Table Conference was held in which Gandhi Ji participated on behalf of congress.
- On 26th September 1932 Poona pact was signed.
- On November 1932, the Third Round Table Conference was held.
- In 1935, Government of India Act was passed to create All India Federation, Provincial Autonomy and Diarchy should be there in the center.
Towards Quit India Movement
- On September 1939 IInd World War broke out, and India was declared an ally without its consent.
- On 10th August 1940 – August Offer was announced by Lord Linlithgow viceroy to get the support of Indians in the Second World War.
- In 1939 S.C Bose founded Forward Bloc. It was a left party.
- On 11th March 1942, Prime Minister Winstill Churchill announced for sending a mission under the chairmanship of Sir Stafford Cripps to find out the solution of constitutional deadlock and problems of Indians.
- With the failure of Cripps Mission, Quit India movement was started in 1942 by the Indian leaders and the resolution of Quit India, and it was drafted by Gandhi Ji. Gandhi Ji gave a call for Do or Die.
- In 1942 – Indian National Army was founded by Captain Mohan Singh and Niranjan Gill at Singapore. S. C Bose took over its command of 2nd Headquarter at Singapore and Rangoon.
- On 21st October 1943 – Azad Hind Government was set up at Singapore under S.C Bose. There was a women regiment known as Rani Jhansi.
- In 1945, the Second World War was ended.
- In 1946, Cabinet Mission Plan was announced by PM Clement Attlee.
- In 1945 – Shimla Conference or Wavell Plan was proposed by Lord Wavell to solve the political deadlock.
- On 2nd September 1946 – Interim Government was set up under J.L Nehru.
- On March 1947 – Lord Mountbatten was sent to India to find a way to transfer of power. Also known as Plan Balkan.
- After reading about the history of the Indian National Movement, we come to know about Extremist and Moderates.
- On 3rd June Independence of India Act, 1947 was passed by which powers were transferred to two Dominion States India and Pakistan.
Also, Check out the History of National Flag of India
Who were Moderates and Extremist
While in a session of Surat in 1907 the Congress was split up into two factions which came out to be known as moderates and Extremists. The moderates have their hold on the party while extremists followed a bold path and independent path.
It gave rise to many of the national movements which led to the Freedom of India. Both the extremists and moderates played an important role in History of India and Indian National Movement and its Freedom.
“Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it,” said Tilak. Aurobindo Ghosh declared, “Political freedom is the life-breath of a nation.” Lala Lajpat Rai thundered, “Indians should no longer be content to be beggars whining for favors; for, if they cared for their country, they would have to strike a blow for themselves.” These ideas were too radical to contemporary thinking. Their authors, therefore, came to be known as the radical nationalists. Being too restive for the results, they were also called the extremists or the militant nationalists.
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